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 cranial nerve ...... صحراء النقب

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كاتب الموضوعرسالة
الصقر الجارح
المدير العام عمرو محمد
المدير العام عمرو محمد
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القوس
عدد المساهمات : 3025
سمعة المساهمه : 36117
تاريخ الميلاد : 30/11/1996
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/04/2009
العمر : 21

مُساهمةموضوع: cranial nerve ...... صحراء النقب    الخميس أغسطس 04, 2011 7:01 am

Cranial Nerves

Since you may not have a general knowledge of the nervous system yet, consider the following as a general introduction into what kind of modalities are possible with nerves. A modality is unit of the nervous system that performs a certain type of action: sensation, movement, constriction, etc. There are two general modalities in the peripheral nervous system: motor (efferent) and sensory (afferent). Efferent impulses start in the central nervous system and pass peripherally in spinal or cranial nerves. Afferent impulses start out peripherally and pass into the central nervous system.

Since we are considering cranial nerves here, this is what we will concentrate on. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves that supply structures in the head, neck, thorax and abdomen. A cranial nerve can be made up of a mixture of functions which are called modalities or may be made up of a single modality. A modality is sensory, motor, special sensory, etc. Below is a breakdown of the modalities of cranial nerves. You may never need to learn this terminology but it is being presented just in case.



Efferent
(motor)

Afferent
(sensory)
General

Visceral

General

Visceral
General somatic
efferent General visceral efferent Special visceral efferent General somatic afferent Special somatic afferent General visceral afferent Special visceral afferent

GSE -- motor to skeletal muscles
GVE -- motor to heart muscle, smooth muscle, glands. In the cranial nerves, these impulses are part of the parasympathetic nervous system.
SVE -- motor to skeletal muscles that develop in branchial arches of the embryo (pharynx, larynx, middle ear)
GSA -- sensations of touch, pain, temperature
SSA -- special sense from organs developing in ectoderm of embryo (vision, hearing)
GVA -- sensory from sensory organs (heart, intestine)
SVA -- special sense from organs developing in association of gastrointestinal tract (smell, taste)

Table of Cranial Nerves
Cranial
Nerve

Foramen of
Exit From Skull

Other Associated
Foramen

Branches

Type of Nerve
Impulse

Area
Supplied and Function
I (olfactory)
cribriform plate none olfactory filaments special sensory (afferent) nasal mucosa, smell
II (optic)
optic foramen none none special sensory (afferent) retina, vision
III (oculomotor)
superior orbital fissure none superior division
inferior division general motor (efferent)
parasympathetic motor muscles: superior rectus, levator palpebrae superioris
muscles: medial rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, parasympathetic to ciliary ganglion for pupillary constriction
IV (trochlear)
superior orbital fissure none muscular motor (efferent) superior oblique muscle
V (trigeminal)
see below see below see below general motor (efferent)
general sensory (afferent) see below
V1 (opthalmic)
superior orbital fissure supraorbital foramen
anterior & posterior
ethmoidal foramina meningeal, frontal, lacrimal, nasociliary general sensory (afferent) sensation from dura, skin of forehead, scalp, roof of nasal cavity and skin on tip of nose, ethmoid air cells
V2 (maxillary)
foramen rotundum inferior orbital fissure
infraorbital foramen meningeal, infraorbital, posterior & anterior superior alveolar branches, zygomatic, sensory roots to pterygopalatine ganglion, greater & lesser palatine general sensory (afferent) sensation from dura, nasal mucosa, soft palate, skin of lower eyelid and beneath the eye, side of nose, cheek, lip, upper teeth, hard palate
V3 (mandibular)
foramen ovale mandibular foramen meningeal, auriculotemporal, buccal, lingual
inferior alveolar general sensory (afferent)
general motor (efferent) sensation from dura, anterior ear and scalp,
mucosa lining cheek and gums, skin of cheek,
lower teeth, skin of chin.
motor to temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid, anterior belly of digastric, mylohyoid, tensor palati, and tensor tympani.
VI (abducens)
superior orbital fissure none muscular general motor (efferent) lateral rectus muscle
VII (facial)
internal auditory meatus hiatus of facial canal
facial canal
stylomastoid foramen greater petrosal nerve, chorda tympani
auricular branch, facial branches, cervical
branches special and general sensory (afferent)
general and parasympathetic motor (efferent) sensation of taste for anterior 2/3 tongue, skin from external meatus, taste from palate.
motor to muscles of facial expression, stapedius muscle, muscles of auricle, parasympathetic motor to pterygopalatine ganglion for lacrimal secretion, motor to submandibular ganglion to submandibular and sublingual glands for secretion.
VIII (vestibulocochlear)
internal auditory meatus none vestibular, cochlear general sensory (afferent) sensation from cochlea for hearing and from
semicircular canals and vestibule for equilibrium
IX (glossopharyngeal)
jugular foramen muscular branches, auricular branch, lingual branch, branch to carotid body and sinus, tympanic branch, lesser petrosal general and special sensory (afferent)
general and parasympathetic motor (efferent) special sensation of taste from posterior 1/3 of tongue, general sensation from the oropharynx, posterior 1/3 of tongue, sensation from pharyngeal mucosa, special sensation from carotid body and sinus.
general motor to stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic to the otic ganglion for parotid gland secretion.
X (vagus)
jugular foramen none palatopharyngeal branch, superior laryngeal branch, recurrent laryngeal branch, carotid sinus nerve, cardiac, pulmonary, gastric, renal, hepatic, pancreatic, small intestine, large intestine branches. sensory (afferent)
motor (efferent) special sensation of taste from base of tongue and epiglottis, general sensation from soft palate, upper larynx, special sensation form carotid body.
motor to muscles of soft palate (except tensor palati), muscles of pharynx (except for stylopharyngeus), muscles of larynx, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle of lungs, muscles of intestinal tract as far as the left colic flexure..
XI (spinal accessory)
jugular foramen foramen magnum muscular motor (efferent) cranial part: provides motor to vagus
spinal part: sternomastoid and trapezius muscles
XII (hypoglossal)
hypoglossal foramen none muscular general motor (efferent) motor to styloglossus, hyoglossus, genioglossus and intrinsic muscles of the tongue.

Now, take a look at what I call cranial nerve maps. These are icons of cranial nerves, their branches, what they supply and what foramina they use. Sensory is yellow and motor is red. Solid red is for skeletal muscle. Dashed red is for parasympathetic fibers. You sort of have to memorize which nerves have motor or sensory or both modalities, then consider what part of the head and neck is involved with each nerve. For example, when you look at the olfactory road map, you will see that it is yellow which means it is purely sensory. Then you consider what kind of sensation of picked up in the periphery which, in this case, is smell. The smell impulses then go back to the central nervous system. If there is red included in the map, that means that something will receive efferent fibers and will either contract or secrete. The impulse starts out in the central nervous system and passes out to a muscle or gland.
You will probably develop your own approach to remembering the cranial nerves and their branches and what they do but this is one method to consider.

Cranial Nerve Maps
cp--cribriform plate
of ethmoid
on--optic nerve
oc--optic chiasm
ot--optic tract
sof--superior orbital fissure
sd--superior division
sr--superior rectus
id--inferior division
mr--medial rectus
io--inferior oblique
ir--inferior rectus
cg--ciliary ganglion
sc--short ciliary nerves
so--superior oblique

Red solid -- motor to skeletal muscles
Red dotted -- parasympathetic motor to cardiac and smooth muscle
Yellow -- sensory (afferent)

tg--trigeminal ganglion
sof--superior orbital fissure
V1--ophthalmic division
f--frontal
supof--supraorbital foramen
so--supraorbital nerve
st--supratrochlear
nc--nasociliary
pe--posterior ethmoidal nerve
ae--anterior ethmoidal nerve
it--infratrochlear nerve
sr--sensory root of ciliary ganglion
lac--lacrimal nerve
V2--maxillary division
fr--foramen rotundum
m--maxillary nerve
tp--sensory root to pterygopalatine ganglion
tpg--pterygopalatine ganglion
gpn--greater palatine nerve
lpn--lesser palatine nerve
z--zygomatice nerve
io--inferior orbital nerve
psa--posterior superior alveolar nerve
asa--anterior superior alveolar nerve
iof--infraorbital foramen
V3--mandibular division
fo--foramen ovale
og--otic ganglion
ntp--nerve to tensor palati muscle
ntt--nerve to tensor tympani muscle
b--buccal nerve
l--lingual nerve
ct--chorda tympani
sg--submandibular ganglion
ia--inferior alveolar nerve
mf--mandibular foramen
menf--mental foramen
mn--mental nerve
nmn--nerve to mylohyoid
adg--anterior belly of digastric muscle
mhm--mylohyoid muscle
at--auriculotemporal nerve


sof--superior orbital fissure

Red solid -- motor to skeletal muscles
Red dotted -- parasympathetic motor to cardiac and smooth muscle
Yellow -- sensory (afferent)


iam--internal auditory meatus
gg--geniculate ganglion
hfc--hiatus of facial canal
gp--greater petrosal nerve
fl--foramen lacerum
pc--pterygoid canal
npc--nerve of pterygoid canal
ppg--pterygopalatine ganglion
mn--maxillary nerve
ln--lacrimal nerve
ns--nerve to stapedius muscle
ab--auricular branch
ct--chorda tympani
sg--submandibular ganglion
slg--sublingual gland
smg--smandibular gland
tb--temporal branches
zb--zygomatic branches
bb--buccal branches
mb-mandibular branch
cb-cervical branch
pbd-nerve to posterior belly of digastric muscle

iam--internal auditory (acoustic) meatus

Red solid -- motor to skeletal muscles
Red dotted -- parasympathetic motor to cardiac and smooth muscle
Yellow -- sensory (afferent)

jf--jugular foramen
sg--superior ganglion
ig--inferior ganglion
tp--tympanic plexus
lpn--lesser petrosal nerve
fo--foramen ovale
og--otic ganglion
pg--parotid gland
sp--nerve to stylopharyngeus muscle
pb--pharyngeal branch
ncbcs--nerve to carotid body carotid sinus

Red solid -- motor to skeletal muscles
Red dotted -- parasympathetic motor to cardiac and smooth muscle
Yellow -- sensory (afferent)


jf--jugular foramen
sg--superior ganglion
ig--inferior ganglion
pb--pharyngeal branch
spc--superior pharyngeal constrictor
sl--superior laryngeal nerve
il--internal laryngeal
el--external laryngeal
ct--cricothyroid muscle
mpc--middle pharyngeal constrictor
rl--recurrent laryngeal nerve
pc--pharyngeal constrictors
csn--carotid sinus nerve



fm--foramen magnum
jf--jugular foramen



C1--first cervical nerve
hf--hypoglossal canal




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